Con este documento tendrás una guía para saber hacia dónde va tu negocio y qué hacer para recuperar el norte
 Un plan de negocio es una guía para el emprendedor o empresario. Se trata de un documento donde se describe un negocio, se analiza la situación del mercado y se establecen las acciones que se realizarán en el futuro, junto a las correspondientes estrategias que serán implementadas, tanto para la promoción como para la fabricación.
Por esta razón, elaborar un plan es necesario para impulsar la empresa, permitiendo que se comuniquen correctamente las informaciones que sean de su entorno; ganar más visibilidad y conseguir inversionistas.
Además, se define correctamente el concepto, las características del producto a servicio que se ofrece, el público meta de la empresa, quienes son los principales competidores del mercado y del negocio.
En el documento se establecen los montos que se necesitan para desarrollar el emprendimiento. Así como dónde se gastará y cuál será el porcentaje dedicado a cada necesidad.
Las estructuras del plan de negocio
Según el portal Entrepreneur, un plan de negocio está compuesto por cinco estructuras:
Está la estructura ideológica, donde se presenta y describe la idea del negocio. Contiene el nombre de la empresa, su misión y visión,  los valores por los se regirá, el compromiso que tiene el emprendedor; las competencias –logros, experiencias-; el carácter con que se enfrentará a los riegos y una descripción de las ventajas competitivas del negocio
Las fortalezas, oportunidades, amenazas y debilidades se expondrán en la estructura del entorno, donde se analizarán cada una de ellas con sus ejemplos. También se describirá al público meta y se estudiará a la competencia.
La forma en cómo se harán cumplir los objetivos y las estrategias que se diseñarán para esto se establecen en la estructura mecánica. En esta parte se desglosan los pasos para la creación de los canales distribución y de ventas, y los canales de comunicación –técnicas de mercadotecnia y publicidad-. Aquí se pone en juego el éxito del negocio.
En la estructura financiera  es el punto del dinero, donde se verifican los logros del negocio, si la idea es viable y si es rentable. Se hacen análisis de los resúmenes contables y de las ventas.
Con la ayuda del departamento de recursos humanos se le asigna a cada puesto el perfil que necesita para su correcto desempeño. Así como las obligaciones que tiene el empleador y el empleado.
¿Cómo hacer el plan de negocio?
Luego de tener definidas las estructuras es necesario que se haga un boceto de cómo sería el plan de negocio que necesitas. Cabe destacar que cada empresa lo presentará según los objetivos que tenga, si son para el personal o para conseguir inversionistas.
Se le debe agregar una portada relacionada al tema que se trabaja y la identidad corporativa de la empresa. Igualmente debe tener un índice que explique el contenido del documento.
Un resumen ejecutivo que hable sobre el producto o servicio que se ofrece, las oportunidades actuales en el mercado, las proyecciones financieras y las necesidades de la empresa para mejorar sus ingresos. Además, los objetivos del negocio.
Las necesidades planteadas deben tener una descripción de las soluciones que plantea el equipo, partiendo de las acciones que han desarrollado y las que pueden agregar a la lista.
Tendrás que vender la idea como única, esto se obtiene luego de examinar las fortalezas y debilidades de la competencia. De igual manera, destaca las cualidades del equipo, la trayectoria y experiencia de la empresa.
Elabora un listado con las características del mercado en la que se desarrolla o encaje la idea del negocio. Ver si es grande o pequeño, si crece constantemente y las audiencias que lo consumen.
La comunicación es fundamental para hacer promociones del establecimiento. Por esto tendrás que diseñar un plan de marketing o promoción del negocio. Te permitirá captar clientes utilizando los medios que más usan para comunicarse.
Esta es la parte del documento donde presentarás todos estos datos con número, ya que tendrás que presentar un análisis de los ingresos y los costes. Cuánto se gasta y cuánto se gana.
No siempre se gana en un negocio, existen momentos de pérdidas y ganancias, lo que te obliga a crear un capítulo en el plan de negocios donde se explique qué hacer en caso de tener menos ingreso y cómo usar los excedentes.
Para completar el plan de negocios puedes agregar anexos al documento, que enriquezcan la información. Pueden ser investigaciones de mercado, los currículos del equipo que participa y los nombres de quienes podrán ser clientes.

 

 

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