Los comerciantes dominicanos pueden registrar una marca, ya sea para un producto o un servicio, gracias a la Ley 20-00 sobre Propiedad Industrial y su Reglamento de Aplicación, a través de la Oficina Nacional de la Propiedad Intelectual de República Dominicana (ONAPI).

Para esta ley una marca es “cualquier signo visible apto para distinguir los productos o los servicios de una empresa, de los productos o servicios de otras empresas”.

Estas pueden ser colectiva, donde la titularidad pertenece a “una entidad colectiva que agrupa a personas autorizadas a usar la marca”, y de certificación, que es “aplicada a productos o servicios de terceros, cuyas características o calidad han sido certificadas por el titular de la marca”.

Según el portal Impulsa, las marcas que se pueden registrar se clarifican en denominativa, solo está compuesta por una o más palabras, combinación de letras y números;  figurativa, contiene sólo imágenes o dibujos; mixta, contiene componente denominativo y gráfico o tridimensional, que corresponde a la forma de los productos o empaques, siempre y cuando sean su aspecto característico.

Es muy importante que al momento de diseñar un producto se haga el registro correspondiente en ONAPI, porque se adquieren todos los derechos sobre esa marca si está debidamente registrada.

Si el signo distintivo no está inscrito en ONAPI puede ser adquirido por cualquier persona que haga la solicitud, situación que podría dar como resultado que pierdas todo el trabajo que has realizado para posicionar este producto.

El artículo 75 de la Ley en cuestión,  establece el procedimiento para el registro de una marca. Indica que puede ser solicitado por una persona física o una persona jurídica, y que se debe presentar en la ONAPI.

La solicitud debe contener el nombre y domicilio del solicitante; el nombre y domicilio del representante en el país, cuando el solicitante no tuviera domicilio ni establecimiento en el país, y la denominación de la marca cuyo registro se solicita, cuando se trate de una marca nominativa.

También se debe presentar las “reproducciones de la marca cuando se trate de marcas denominativas, estilizadas, con forma, tipo o color particulares, o de marcas figurativas, mixtas o tridimensionales con o sin color”.

Asimismo, una lista de los productos o servicios para los cuales se desea proteger la marca, agrupados por clases, y, si es necesario, la firma del solicitante o de su representante debidamente apoderado. Además, el comprobante de pago de la tasa establecida.

Todos estos documentos se presentarán en una de las oficinas de la ONAPI con una carta dirigida a esta institución. Luego de la entrega, sus representantes revisarán la solicitud y  comprobarán de que no infrinja ninguna de las prohibiciones estipuladas en la Ley.

Además se debe anexar cinco reproducciones del diseño, en dimensiones no mayor de 15cm x 15cm,  que incluya los colores que acompañarán a la marca.

“En caso que ONAPI encuentre alguna violación el solicitante o su representante serán notificación y se le otorgará un plazo de sesenta (60) días para “retirar, modificar o limitar” la solicitud o responder a las objeciones de ONAPI.

Si el solicitante o su representante no responden en el tiempo establecido o si su respuesta no resuelve la objeción, la aplicación será negada”, explica, en su blog, la abogada Leticia Caminero.

Tasas para el servicio

Se puede hacer una búsqueda sobre los antecedentes de una marca en la ONAPI, el costo es de 450 pesos. Esto lo suelen hacer para proponer un distintivo que no se haya usado y hacer el proceso más rápido.

La tasa para hacer el registro de una marca de producto o servicios es de 4,735 pesos y la publicación 2,500 pesos.

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